Food crisis hits Malawi refugee camp Dzaleka: Women in ‘survival sex’

Malnutrition is stalking Malawi’s only refugee camp, Dzaleka, after rations were slashed following funding cutbacks by the international donor community.

Prohibited from working, refugees at the overcrowded Dzaleka camp have been surviving on minimal food rations due to donor cutbacks

Prohibited from working, refugees at the overcrowded Dzaleka camp have been surviving on minimal food rations due to donor cutbacks

The UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)Southern Africa spokesperson, Tina Ghelli, said that a humanitarian disaster is looming among the 24 000 refugees at the camp, which lies about 45km from Lilongwe.

“Children less than five years, child-headed households, the chronically ill, disabled persons, pregnant and lactating mothers, female-headed households and the elderly are feared to be on the brink of malnutrition. This could lead to an emergency situation if the nutrition indicators further deteriorate.” Ghelli said.

Some women are said to be engaging in “survival sex” to feed their children, while police report a general rise in anti-social behaviour.

Interviews with inmates and the camp’s management also revealed that chronically ill people have lost weight and are unable to comply with their drug regimes.

Sources in the aid community hinted that Malawi’s tough policy on refugees – they are not allowed to leave the camp to seek work, do business or farm – is fuelling the crisis.

Overcrowding is also an issue: Dzaleka served as a political prison during the one-party rule of former president Hastings Banda and was built to hold about 6 000 people.

Responding to amaBhungane’s questions, the government pledged to review laws that restrict the economic activities of refugees – but warned that this would take time.

A statement by the UN’s World Food Programme (WFP) said that funding shortfalls have forced itto reduce rations and even suspend provision of some foodstuffs over the past six months.

The WFP said refugees are receiving 40% of their daily calorie requirements:  6.7kg of maize grain, 0.75kg of pulses and 2kg of fortified corn-soya flourper person per month.

The agency said that without additional funding, maize stocks, even at a half-ration, are set to run out in the middle of this month, while stocks of vegetable oil, pulses and Super Cereal are likely to be depleted by May.

WFP said US$2 million (R32-million) is needed to resume provision of full food rations for the next 12 months.

The Dzaleka refugee camp has hosted refugees for more than 15 years. Most refugees comefrom the Democratic Republic of Congo, but fugitives from conflicts in Ethiopia, Somalia and Rwandaare also present.

Ghelli said the inability of the refugees to support themselves over such a long period and donor fatigue had led funders to “divert their commitments”.

“Without the right to work or freedom of movement, the refugees are completely dependent on international aid.Some of the donors are tired of supporting these protracted refugee situations, leading to camps such as Dzaleka receiving less and less funding.”

Camp inmates fear for the worst if they are not allowed to earn additional income by working.

“The situation is really bad, we are starving,” said Prime Hakusweyezu, a Rwandan refugee who has been in the camp since 2010. “At the hospitals there is no medicine; if you get sick you’re just given painkillers.

“As refugees we have difficulties in finding money, so life is really tough with reduced rations. We are still waiting from WFP, UNHCR and government of Malawi to help us.”

Deputy camp director Hirare Namakwa called for urgent action, saying that “normally each person is supposed to receive at least 19.9kg of maize per month – three times what the refugees are getting now”.

The principal secretary in the ministry of home affairs, Beston Chisamile, said Malawi is currently using the 1989 Refugee Act, which adheres to the restrictive conventions of 1951.

Chisamile said: “We are working on reviewing this law so that we will lift some of the restrictions. This is a long process; we have to do a lot of consultations. We need to help our friends.”

Malawi is party to both the 1951 UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, its 1967 Protocol, and the 1969 OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa.

More recently, it ratified the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons. However, it is yet to accede to the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, which would enable refugees to seek gainful employment.

The current legal framework governing the rights of refugees has been broadened, but these rights are to some extent affected by the nine “reservations” Malawi includedin the 1951 Convention.

These restrict the rights of naturalisation, health, education, freedom of movement and economic activity.

Malawi is southern Africa’s most food-insecurestate, with some 2.8-million people currently estimated to be in need of food assistance.

  • The M&G Centre for Investigative Journalism (amaBhungane) produced this story.
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15 thoughts on “Food crisis hits Malawi refugee camp Dzaleka: Women in ‘survival sex’”

  1. SAMSON says:

    CHONCHOBE,NGATI IFE TIKULIRA KULI BWANJI IWO?

  2. Chimbalu says:

    The idea of allowing refuguees to work in cant be accepted. The PS is foolish by not vehemently saying no to this. These are the kind of officials who go to attend workshops and sign for anything without considering its impact on the Malawians. Are these PSs really picked on merit?

  3. Dowa Nurse was NRU says:

    I work at Dowa hospital as a nurse, under five children from the Dzeleka are not malnourished, most are even better naurished than Malawi kids because they recieve cooking oil, soya and ground nuts regularly. 5 Years ago action hunger did survey and they found same results.

  4. richmond says:

    No good just give us change

  5. Koma zina ukaona, Kamba anga mwala ndithu. I challenge you researchers to go and find out. Many of the refugees are doing better financially than Malawians due to various businesses these people are doing in Malawi. For your information, Malawi is the only easiest country the refugees can maneuver in any way including marrying our ladies and committing different criminal activities. Just to remind you. The Mozambican refugees we had, caused a lot of suffering to Malawians by killing them and stealing property including burglary. So what are you talking about, you want us to be more stupid than this? Take care.

  6. Nottrue says:

    Inu anyasa times ndi ntchito yanu kufufuza nkhani musanayilembe. Is it true that these people are not farming? doing business or going out? These people are doing all sorts of activities a human being can do and inu muli apa kulilembera zabodza boma la Malawi? Ngati malamulo amalawi ziri choncho mwafufuza kuti malamulowo akugwiradi ntchito? Anyasa times go to Dowa ngati sumukakwera mini bus ya murefegee from Dowa turn-off to Dzaleka or ngati simukagula tomato, onion or anything from refugees. Ngati njala yavuta , yavuta .koma musatiipitsire mbiri ndimabodza anuwa. After all why are they here in Malawi ? there is no war in their countries please just send them home , we dont have food in Malawi everyone is sufffering but them they have food in their countries .pliz send them home. Osamalemba za mmaluwa be professional pliz.

  7. Dikisan says:

    Ethopia, Rwanda No More wars. Why keep them? We try to be good for nothing. The congestion that is in our prison could have been reduced if Dzaleka wa is use.

  8. bamusi says:

    Consequences or RIGGING ELECTIONS. A lot of fat maize COBS on T-shirts, empty stomach. Shame!!!

  9. Tt says:

    PUSH, pray until shit happens! Thank you jesus

  10. 2016 welcome says:

    The whole Malawi is now a refugee camp. Even bonafide citizens are going through the same predicament

  11. Eduardo Happy says:

    Let the UN solve this food crisis at the refugee camps. The problem should not be pushed to the Malawi Government because our government is facing similar challenges. Why spend billions of US dollars on wars when people face starvation.

  12. Jambo says:

    Why is government keeping people from Rwanda and Ethiopia? There are no civil wars from these countries why are you giving them refuge status?
    Govt shud discuss with UNHCR to release some people from non civil war countries. Please Malawi govt don’t be sleepy.

  13. Chief Mpango says:

    send them home no war where they come from

  14. Bandula says:

    Even if you say they shud be allowed to work, where will they work with 80% unemployment among mainstream Mallawians. Don’t copy and paste what would be applicable in Germany. Malawi is a doomed state where those principles can not apply

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