Kicking away the JCE ladder in Malawi education -Dr Steve Sharra

Let me start with a disclaimer. I am not an expert in educational measurement, evaluation and assessment. These are highly specialised areas in educational research dealing with tests and examinations, and Malawi has quite a number of experts in the disciplines. My familiarity lies with curriculum, pedagogy, educational policy and teacher education. So my views in the ensuing discussion pertain to the policy implications of the decision, by the Malawi government, to abolish the Junior Certificate of Education (JCE), in the broader context of Malawi’s education system.

Teaching in Malawi

Teaching in Malawi

Several factors make the decision to abolish the JCE a monumental one. Debate on the JCE has been around for some time, although it was rather informal and sporadic. There have been research studies on educational assessment in Malawi, and a recommendation to abolish the JCE goes back to 2004, according to a study titledStudent testing and assessment reform done by Kadzamira, E., Moleni, K., Kholowa, F., Nkhoma, M., Zoani, A., Chonzi, R., and Chigeda, A.

According to a 2013 article by Dr. Bob Chulu, Dean of the Faculty of Education at Chancellor College, in the journal Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, research studies in assessment have shown that school-based assessments are more effective than national examinations. The Malawi Government has been gradually evolving toward continuous assessment as a more effective mode of evaluating students.
Sooner or later, the JCE was going to be abolished, more for reasons of educational efficiency and the improvement of teaching and learning, than for economic exigency. It was only a matter of how and when to make the decision. Two questions now stare us in the face. First, whether the manner in which the decision has been arrived at has taken care of all the cautions issued and recommendations made by research studies. Second, where do we go from here?

As reported by the Daily Times of Monday21st September, the decision to abolish the JCE has come as part of the on-going Public Service Reform Programme (PSRP). Government ministries, agencies and parastatals are doing internal scrutiny and deciding for themselves how and what to reform. The suggestions are taken to the PSRP Commission, where they are further scrutinised and debated, before making a decision on them and passing it on to the president. What this means is that the changes announced last week came from MANEB itself. The president merely approved them, probably after being convinced, by way of the commission’s decision.

Writ large, the public service reforms are a much-needed and welcome change for Malawi. The country’s future depends on them. We cannot continue business as usual, lest we manifest Albert Einsten’s definition of insanity: doing the same thing repeatedly and expecting different results each time. As long as the internal process itself is systematic, consultative, and rigorous, we can rest assured of a process that will bear good fruit. Whether that indeed is the case will be known in due course.

Coming to the JCE question, a number of factors complicate the way in which the decision has been made. The first factor is that the reforms are happening at a time when the Malawi economy is undergoing severe problems. While it is true that necessity is the mother of all inventions, the danger in our circumstances is that institutions may be tempted to think of reforms dictated more by economic necessity than by the desire for wholistic efficiency. There is great risk here that the economic factors could triumph over common sense and end up skewing the reforms. This is not to question the timing of the reforms. It is the perfect timing. But the risk for skewed reforms needs to be taken seriously. In any case, and as Austin Madinga pointed out on his Facebook page, “it had to start somewhere.”

The second complicating factor is the efficiency, or lack of it, of our educational system. The majority of Malawians who start school dropout and never finish. About 900,000 enter school every year and after seven years about 700,000 drop out, according to government statistics (ESIP II, 2014). Only about 90,000 make it to secondary school yearly. This decision means that we will have millions of Malawians who attended some schooling but left with nothing to show for it. Countries that do not have the equivalent of the JCE tend to be countries whose dropout rates are negligible. Ours are some of the highest on the planet.

The idea of having people request for their Standard 8 transcript means that the majority will choose not to for reasons others have pointed out. It is true that both the Standard 8 and the JCE certificates are no longer valuable for employment. But this is based on faulty thinking, as I will explain in a moment.

The third factor relates to the message being sent about the value of education up to Form 3, as I have pointed out elsewhere. This is an unintended consequence concealed in the justification given for the decision to abolish the examination. The message to students, teachers and parents is that none of this education is important, until a student reaches Form 4. This reasoning emanates from what we could call, for lack of a better term, the kick-away-the-ladder syndrome. 

The argument given by the government, that the JCE has lost its value and is not demanded by employers emanates from this syndrome. It can only be made after one has ascended to the roof and now thinks one no longer needs the ladder. So one kicks it away. The success is being mistaken for the path. The fact that you have now reached the roof does not mean you did not need the ladder all along. Sending this message about the value, or lack thereof, of education up to Form 3 can erode seriousness amongst students, teachers and parents. Though unintended, it is the wrong message to send. 

The fourth factor is using employment demands to drive educational policy. This is a tricky one. While it is undeniable that employment is an overriding aim of education, focusing strictly on employment demands restricts the purposes of education. The purpose of education, as the late Tanzanian president Mwalimu Julius Nyerere pointed out in 1968, is to prepare students to thrive in and contribute positively to their society. People contribute to society in more ways than dictated by employment demands. Democratic citizenship is an equally important purpose of education, which should not play second fiddle to employment demands.

The fifth factor complicating this decision is the speed and volume of the changes. There have been no less than four major educational changes announced in a space of eleven days in September alone. And more are coming. There is a new secondary school curriculum now. There are new national educational standards. Many simultaneous changes could potentially send a shockwave through the education system. I don’t envy the Ministry of Education officials, DEMs, PEAs and head teachers who have to implement all these radical changes all at once. We should consider introducing them in phases to allow for an orderly change management process.
In getting rid of the JCE, MANEB has offered continuous assessment as a replacement. Dr. Chulu observed, in his journal article, that continuous assessment was suggested to MANEB several years ago, and MANEB rejected it for reasons to do with security and reliability. Now that MANEB seems to have changed its mind, it is time to revisit the models suggested by assessment experts. Continuous assessment is not easy to conduct.

A pilot study done in Ntcheu in the early 2000s found that although it improved student performance, it was taxing. Teachers found it very demanding, especially in large classes. Teachers implementing continuous as part of the current Primary Curriculum and Assessment Reform (PCAR) have since complained that they spend more time filling forms and recording numbers than preparing for teaching. Rather than improve teaching and learning, this form of busy work has worsened matters.

Moving forward after the abolition of JCE will require meticulous caution. There will be need to consult widely, from students to teachers to parents and other stakeholders. Continuous assessment works in contexts where classes are small. The target of 60 students per teacher which Malawi has been aiming at for the past decade is far from the ideal, as anyone who has taught young people will testify. The only reason that ratio appears in our policy documents is because the status quo is unimaginable. We have perhaps the highest teacher-pupil ratios in the world. The official one appearing in policy documents, 1:78, is far from the reality on the ground. The national ratio obscures the true numbers in the lower grades.

Teachers need to be well educated, and resources need to be available for continuous assessment to succeed. A Zambian study on continuous assessment confirmed the problems caused by large classes and lack of teaching and learning resources (Kapambwe, 2010). It also identified student absenteeism and poor monitoring and feedback by district officials as other compounding factors. 

These challenges are common to Malawi as well. If the money saved from these decisions does not go towards addressing the identified challenges and making conditions more conducive for continuous assessment, we will be courting worse disasters down the road.
There is a paradox about examinations. They influence teaching and learning because students, teachers and society tend to take them as the ultimate goal of education. They become self-reinforcing. This paradox extends to global educational role models. Finland, considered to have the best education system in the world, has only one national examination, taken at the end of secondary school. East Asia (China, Singapore, South Korea), which now produces the highest student performance scores in the world, relies on a heavy, punishing examination regimen. Some students commit suicide in the process.
A paradigm shift is underway in global education, moving from education for employment towards education for creativity and innovation. The rationale for this shift is that nobody can predict the world of the future, so it does not make sense to educate students for employment. Better to educate them for creativity and innovation so they can adapt their knowledge to solve problems unknown today.

There are good models Malawi can learn from. But removing the examinations without a careful, deliberate process could create a vacuum that could paralyse the system. We need to proceed very carefully and put in place long term plans, guided by meaningful consultations. Or else we will be solving a few problems while creating bigger ones.

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20 thoughts on “Kicking away the JCE ladder in Malawi education -Dr Steve Sharra”

  1. Gogo says:

    Atchukadi nkupha maphunziro mmalo mwa zitukuko. Will you people really have something to show after 2019? The answer is between your lips.

  2. Zoonadi anzanga’ dziko la pansi likomera opata’.Kaya makoponi,’opata uli kuti?’ ndipatse ka5000.Kaya ndithandizo yochokera kwa azungu”tisapuse boma lathu likatha tidzasauka”.Lero thandizo likuchepa, titani? “Tiphe mayeso a PSLCE ndi JC”.

    Abale anzanga! kusamaliza ambiri sukulu sikufuna koma chinzake inu,chotchedwa’ndalama’ “pitani mmudzi mukaone ana ambiri anzeru akulephera kumaliza awo maphunziro chifukwa cha wawo umphawi ndi umasiye ochokera kumakolo”.Akapita kuboma amangoti ‘bweraninso mmawa’ mpaka wamasiye ndi wovutikitsatsa kutopa nkukakhala pansi kumudzi.

    Abale chipanda a former ndi founder presindent wa democracy Dr Bakili Muluzi pokhazikitsa maphunziro awulere kupulaimale ndi tima JC tikuchotsedwati.Kodi wawumpawi ndi wamasiye akanatani?Kodi yawu mgwanya kapena yaulonda tchito,udalaivara,yosesa mu ofesi ndi yolima mu munda wa mzimbe,tea ndi fodya akanaipeza Kuti imuthandize kupitiliza maphunziro ake?

    Chonde! futsani maganizo a anthu akuuzeni zoona.JC ikuchepetsa chiwerenge cha anthu osaphunzira m’Malawi chifukwa munthu akalephera kumala sukulu koma ali ndi JC, akapeza ntchito yosesa akukwanitsa kudyetsa,kusamala ndikuphunzitsa ana ake ndikukhala ma proffesor,nduna,manager ngakhale president.Mukachotsa aka ataninso munthu wosauka ndi waumasiye kamba kampwirikiti wa matenda alipowa? Pezani njira ina yokonzera maphunziro ndi kupezera ndalama.

    Dr H.Banda anaganiza mwakuya ndithu kuti mayeso amenewa akhalepo.Unikirani ndi kufufuza mozama.Mutha kundivomereza kuti ku sukulu zonse continuous assessment,formative assessment ndi summative assessment zilipo.

    Namga chikuvuta n’chiyani zikuvuta:support ya boma kwa anthu ogwira ntchito maka ophunzitsawo,serious supervision kuchokera ku ministry ndi ku MANEB,selection creteria yomwe ikutsatidwa ndi a MANEB amakhala alibe performance records ya ana amene akuwasankha chomcho amasankha mbuli anzeru nkutsala ndikugwa ulesi osapitilizanso maphunziro,chitetezo chamayeso mchosakwanira pali crack penapake komweko ku MANEB ndiponso corruption ndi cashgate.

    Tiyeni titenge maphunziro kukhala ofunika osati monga mmene tikuganizira kuthetsa JC cholinga chozisangalatsa ndi kutchuka mmalo moganizira ena.

  3. Sir Bentby says:

    i totally disagree with this long but senseless article, there is no way someone can remove all pslce and jce, these exams works as membrane that sieve the brutal biggots and genius minds.

    national exams were forcing both teachers to put an extra gear, hence they were covering the syllabus, and pupils were also doing all possible to exploration with an aim of making it,
    once you abolish jce, teachers will be notching in their offices and at end not covering the whole syllabus, and to make matter worse, they will asses pupils in accordance to there half syllabus they covered, thereby sending half baked pupils to form 1, and form 4, respectively. this is totally plank, totally madness.

  4. isaac says:

    Most of the people that are writing on this issue have avery good sound pocket who are able to send there kids to private schools which do follow our curriculum. What I can say is let them also send there kids to public schools and see what an impact this will have on our nation and there kids as well.

  5. Sambaukwatiwe says:

    A strong foundation, pillars determines the stability of a building, then there are beams that hold to the pillars, and there comes a strong roof making a complete strong building, i wonder why the reserchers, and the gvt are recomending to destroy the main pillars that holds the roof of a building, are we not going to see what happened at Kips in Bt? PSLC and JCE are the foundations and the pillars that makes a gud MSCE. The secret of foundation is always underground and its only a few who knw how inportant it is? Let MANEB mantain those exams and the JCE Certificate, its the best yardstick for MSCE.

  6. petulo dzimphuno ngati mauna a mbewa says:

    Anthu inu musagone ndibodza lalikulu kupanga abolish JCE kodi whose kids are we doing this for?? inu ana azikhala osalemba mayeso from std 1 all the way to form 4??? inu ndikumasekerera???? achitileni chifundo ana anthu abaleee. A inu ndi ine tikawayika ku pvt akapanga sit for mid point exam at form 3 kenako IGSCE in form 5 kenako SA in form 6 KOMA BASI ANA A ANTHU OPITA KU PUBLIC SCHOOL BASI NO EXAMINATIONS. THIS IS ONE SURE WAY DPP LED GOERNMENT HAS UNLEASHED GENOCIDAL TACTICS ON THE NATION OF MALAWI. HEY WE ARE DEALING WITH PEOPLES DESTINIES AND FUTURES. FABIANO, WHO IS THE ARCHITECT OF THIS BULL SHIT DOESNT HAVE KIDZ KU SECONDARY AKE ONSE ANAKULA, ADZUKULU AKE ALI KU PVT CHECK THIS. THE DECISION IS BASED ON ECONOMIC REASONS AND NOT ACADEMIC WHICH IS SOOO SOO SHAMEFUL. JC COSTS MUCH MUCH LESS THAN WHAT PETULO AND PATRICIA KALIATI SPENDS IN NEWYORK. IZITU ZILINGATI ZAMBENDERA KHALANI CHONCHO IFE TIDZABWEZERETSA ZONSE JCE NDI PSLC. PETULO NTALIKA AKATI AKUFUNA mk500,000,000.00 yekha kumpatsa pompopompo koma maneb akati tikufuna 1,2,000,000,000.00 kudula kudula kudula kudula mabulutu nonnse kuyambila petulo wanuyo bulutu otha ntchito.

  7. Bubu says:

    You wrote too much. Can you not summarise for us policy makers?

  8. Ron De Ville says:

    In one of today’s newspaper, Malawi Bureau of Standards have put an advert for 2 vacant positions of drivers with JCE.

    Some of the students who were in Community Day Sec Schools got a chance of being selected to start form 3 at National Sec Sch when they do better on JCE exams to fill in the vacant spaces. Now how will the Ministry fill these spaces with this death sentence on JCE exams? Is this not cultivating a conducive environment for breeding corruption?

  9. tiko says:

    Very gud article. I surppot abolishion of JCE but I hv reservations for std 8.
    Assessment in sec school shd make one who fails end of year internal exams to repeat the year. Govt shd only reinforce record keeping in schools and formulation of reliable and valid tests; and every qualified teacher knows what that means including values in testing and measurement.
    My reservation on PSLCE sorely base on the scramble for govt sec sch that we have. Let someone tell me what criteria will be used for selection?

  10. Malawian says:

    Thumb up for a well written article, which is based on facts and not dreams, as is the case with many articles written and posted on this forum. But my simple question is; can we comfortably claim that the abolishing of standard 5 examinations same time ago in Malawi had catastrophic impacts? My simple answer is A BIG NO. Therefore it means that history on education policy can teach us something. Sometimes its better to let off excess baggage for the sake of making progress. Another good example is how most catholic secondary school handle continuous assessment seriously to the extent that some students are weeded along the way, a good example is Marist Brothers Secondary School. Do you mean other schools and teachers can not emulate this good example? If you check the facts under the circumstances schools like Marist Brother Secondary School produce more University material. Therefore I think that the proposal is the step in the right direction. The question of the right time to implement a policy is becoming philosophical by day in Malawi I think. But if you ask me, the right time is now other wise procastination is a recipe for failure, the is never the right time to start something other than now.

  11. No Retreat No Surrender says:


  12. Bahati says:

    If a Jce is indeed useless, is the knowledge of that level useless as well?
    When our children approach exams they study hard…in the process they acquire alot of knowledge

    Did the reseachers not come to their senses and realise that our children will reach form four with very limited knowledge due to less study as they will relax alot?

    Let’s wait and see…

  13. Joseph Banda says:


    1. Primary School leaving certificate -from year 1 to year 8= 8 years of schooling
    The most difficulty years as the child has to start from the scratch. But no middle exams.

    2. Secondary school-from form 1 to 4= 4 years with exam in year 2

    3. Tertiary School- from year 1 to 4, 5 or 6 with no mid term examinations.

    Why secondary schools?

    Probably the best way is to continue with the cancellation of JCE and students should be properly tested at each level and if the student does not pass let him/her write supplementary exams. If he fails then he can go home. He can get a transcript that he/she attended forms, 1, or 2, or 3 and even 4. I see the merit of getting rid off JCE

  14. Twakwalakwa says:

    Ife tikufuna ma article ngati amenewa. From my own assessment, this is the first article ever on nyasatimes that has given us value for our eyes.

  15. bwangandu says:

    JCE can be very useful in employment if the country was creative enough in creating job opportunities. The other way of making certificate relevant is having it together with PSLCE as a minimum for those who need to do driving. This is the case in Ethiopia where Bajaj drivers are required to show the attainment of grade (standard) 4 while those for vehicles cannot do if there is no evidence that they did not attain grade 10. Such will encourage more to work had hence improving the understanding of issues of general populace apart from increasing literacy rate
    A very nice article responding to queries I had in the first place especially on background information and rationale. Thanks Dr.

  16. Ron De Ville says:

    The fact that employers including the Government stopped recruiting people with JCE as highest academic qualification cannot be disputed. However we must realise that the said JCE has been a good foundation for MSCE. Students have been walking into form 2 without being properly tested in form 1, form 2 was therefore providing a better measuring stick after writing the national examinations, the results would show whether that particular student is ready for MSCE or not. I would not agree with the findings of the research that Centre based exams are better than national one for some reasons:

    (1) Some schools are better off in terms of resources and infrastructure thus putting students from these schools at an advantage.
    (2)Some schools have unqualified or qualified but not dedicated teachers who would examine their students in accordance with their ability. Their ability would therefore not be at par with those of teachers from other schools.
    (3) It would be hard for teachers to measure themselves as they wont have a national measuring yardstick which would ascertain performance of the students.

    Having said this, in my own opinion I believe phasing out of JCE is not a good idea. It is not a good idea either to have students relaxing for 3years and becoming serious when they are in fourth year. I have seen students writing the JCE exams with serious minds and now you would like to remove this seriousness? 98% of the people who write the JCE exams are very young who need to go step by step in order to get used to national exams. Even in football why do we have the under 17, 20, 23 & the senior team? Is it not for the same reason, to get the youngsters experience through international exposure?

    I feel very sad that people who did that research have JCEs in their closets just as some of the top govt officials who were recruited into the civil service using JCE and upgraded themselves. Would they have the chance if someone before them had brought forth this idea and implemented it?

    Why not conduct a research through the Dept of Human Resource to get the figures of JCE on entry Cilvil Servants and at what position they are today, on retirement or on death. With names as well then people can think twice.

    Lastly scrub off First Degree in any discipline and start with Masters. Good luck.

  17. rasta says:

    mature article. unfortunately most readership here on nyasatimes don’t pay attention to such insightful articles koma zopusa. we are a doomed nation. i am praying that this mapwevupwevu continues till 2019 so that malawians learn a bitter lesson through untold miseries like never before. we are sick!!!!

  18. amunamuna says:

    I wonder why malawi fails to come up with innovations basing on research. Mostly political influence is the order of the day. For example, free primary, husty implementation of pcar, announcement of making english mode of communication from std 1 and now this abolision of jc exams were(are) all influenced by politicians.

  19. Edward Chileka-Banda says:

    Very sorber and fair analysis of the policy. I agree that our education should not focus on employment but enforcing creative and innovative mind. An intense learning with serious assessment ahead prepares the mind for. Cognitive development. Again the volume of work to be covered may not be easy to absorb without phased standardised exams. We must train for self employment. Scrapping JCE off the ladder without alternatives could be one final blow to our education system and MSCE will surely show.

  20. S.Chisale says:

    Steve, congratulations for a well written article;clearly written after some careful research which backs every persuasive argument you raise in the article.

Comments are closed.